dinsdag 2 februari 2010

Xylitol



Discovered in 1891 by German chemist Emil Fischer, xylitol has been used as a sweetening agent in human food since the 1960s. Xylitol is a white crystalline powder that is odorless, with a pleasant, sweet taste. It is gaining increasing acceptance as an alternative sweetener due to its role in reducing the development of dental caries (cavities).

Xylitol occurs naturally in many fruits and vegetables and is even produced by the human body during normal metabolism. Produced commercially from plants such as birch and other hard wood trees and fibrous vegetation, xylitol has the same sweetness and bulk as sucrose with one-third fewer calories and no unpleasant aftertaste. It quickly dissolves and produces a cooling sensation in the mouth.

Xylitol is currently approved for use in foods, pharmaceuticals and oral health products in more than 35 countries. Xylitol is used in foods such as chewing gum, gum drops and hard candy, and in pharmaceuticals and oral health products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, children's chewable multivitamins, toothpastes and mouthwashes. In the United States, xylitol is approved as a direct food additive for use in foods for special dietary uses.

Facts About XylitolGood Taste with No Unpleasant Aftertaste
Helps Reduce the Development of Dental Caries
Reduces Plaque Formation
Increases Salivary Flow to Aid in the Repair of Damaged Tooth Enamel
Provides One-Third Fewer Calories than Sugar – about 2.4 Calories per Gram
May Be Useful as an Alternative to Sugar for People with Diabetes on the Advice of their Health Care Providers

Reduces New Caries FormationIn clinical and field tests, the consumption of xylitol between meals was associated with significantly reduced new caries formation, even when participants were already practicing good oral hygiene. Results clearly establish that use of xylitol sweetened foods provides additional help in the battle against tooth decay. It also inhibits the growth of S. mutans, the primary bacterium associated with dental caries. The usefulness of polyols, including xylitol, as alternatives to sugars and as part of a comprehensive program including proper dental hygiene has been recognized by the American Dental Association. The FDA has approved the use of a "does not promote tooth decay" health claim in labeling for sugar-free foods that contain xylitol or other polyols.

In a two-year study conducted at the Ylivieska Health Center in Finland, children aged 11-12 who consumed 7 to 10g of xylitol daily in chewing gum showed a 30 to 60% reduction in new dental caries development compared to the control group not chewing gum.

The possible long-term caries-preventing effects of xylitol have been studied as a follow-up to the Ylivieska study. Re-examination of the subjects 2 or 3 years after discontinuation of the use of xylitol revealed a continued reduction in caries increment in the post-use years of about 55%. In teeth erupting during the first year of the use of xylitol chewing gum, the long-term caries preventative effect was over 70%. The results suggest that the value of xylitol may be highest during periods of high dental activity such as eruption of new teeth.

A 40-month (1989-93) cohort study on the relationship between the use of chewing gum and dental caries was performed with 4th grade students in Belize, Central America. Nine treatment groups were included: control group (no gum); four xylitol groups (range of xylitol consumption 4.3-9.0g/day); two xylitol/sorbitol groups (total polyol consumption 8.0/9.7g/day); one sorbitol group (9.0g/day); and one sucrose group (9.0g/day). Compared with the no-gum group, sucrose gum usage resulted in a marginal increase in caries rate (relative risk 1.20). Sorbitol gum reduced the caries rate (relative risk 0.74). The four xylitol gums were most effective in reducing caries rates (relative risks from 0.48-0.27). The most effective gum was a 100% xylitol pellet gum (relative risk 0.27). The xylitol/sorbitol gums were less effective than xylitol, but reduced the caries rates significantly compared to the no-gum or sorbitol gum groups. The results suggest that systemic usage of polyol-based chewing gum reduces caries rates in young subjects, with xylitol gums being most effective.

A three-year clinical dentifrice caries study was conducted with 2,630 children initially aged 8-10 years in the San Jose, Costa Rica metropolitan area. The study evaluated the efficacy of a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica/10% xylitol dentifrice when compared to a 0.243% sodium fluoride/silica dentifrice which contained no xylitol. After the three-year period, subjects using the xylitol-containing dentifrice had a statistically significant reduction in decayed and filled dental surfaces (12.3% reduction; P<0.001). The study supports earlier work which suggests that xylitol and fluoride act synergistically to increase the efficacy of oral hygiene products.

Reduces Plaque Growth

Recent studies at the Dental Schools of Michigan and Indiana Universities have tested the effect of xylitol/sorbitol blends in chewing gum and mints on plaque. They showed a significant decrease in plaque accumulation.

Stimulates Salivary Flow
The sweetness and pleasant cooling effect of xylitol-sweetened products (such as mints and chewing gum) create an increase in salivary flow. Saliva helps with cleaning and protecting teeth from decay.

Use in the Diets of People With DiabetesControl of blood glucose, lipids and weight are the three major goals of diabetes management today. Xylitol is slowly absorbed. Therefore, when xylitol is used, the rise in blood glucose and insulin response associated with the ingestion of glucose is significantly reduced. The reduced caloric value (2.4 calories per gram versus 4.0 for sugar) of xylitol is consistent with the objective of weight control.

SafetyIn 1986, the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) was commissioned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to review all relevant data concerning xylitol and other polyols. The FASEB report's scientific conclusions indicate that the use of xylitol in humans is safe. The report also affirms xylitol's acceptability as an approved food additive for use in foods for special dietary uses.

In 1996, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), a prestigious scientific advisory body to the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, confirmed that adverse findings in animal studies conducted in the 1970s are "not relevant to the toxicological evaluation of these substances (e.g., xylitol) in humans." JECFA has allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of "not specified" for xylitol. ADI, expressed in terms of body weight, is the amount of a food additive that can be taken daily in the diet over a lifetime without risk. An ADI of "not specified" is the safest category in which JECFA can place a food additive. The Scientific Committee for Food of the European Union (EU) also determined xylitol "acceptable" for dietary uses.


References
Bär, A., Xylitol. In: Alternative Sweeteners, L. O'Brien Nabors & R.C. Gelardi eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., N.Y., 1991.

Brunzell, John D., Use of fructose, xylitol, or sorbitol as a sweetener in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, Vol. 1, No. 4, July-August 1978.

Isokangas, P.; Alanen, P.; Tiekso, J.; Makinen, K.K ., Xylitol chewing gum in caries prevention. A field study in children at caries-active ages. J Am Dent Assoc, 117:315-20, 1988.

Isokangas, P.; Alanen, P.; Tiekso, J.; Makinen, K.K . Long-term effect of xylitol chewing gum on dental caries. Community Dent. Oral Epidemia. 17:200, 1989.

Life Sciences Research Office, 1986. Health aspects of sugar alcohols and lactose. Report prepared for the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C., under contract No. FDA 223-83-2020 by LSRO, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB), Bethesda, Md.

Makinen, K. K.; Bennett, C.A.; Hujoel, P. P.; Isokangas, P. J.; Isotupa, K. P.; Pape, Jr., H. R.; Makinen, P. L. Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: A 40-month study. J. Dent Res 74(12): 1904-1913, December 1995.

Office of the Federal Register, General Services Administration, 1995. Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. S. 172.395. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.

Official Journal of European Communities (1990) 0 276.40.

Park, K.; Schemehorn, B.; Bolton, J.; Stookey, G.; Comparative effects of sorbitol and xylitol mints on plaque acidogenicity. Paper presented at the 69th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, 1991.

Sintes, J.L.; Escalante, C.; Stewart, B.; McCool, J. J.; Garcia, L,; Volpe, A.R.; Triol, C. Enhanced anticaries efficacy of a 0.243% sodium fluoride/10% xylitol/silica dentifrice: 3-year clinical results. American J of Dent, 8(5), 231-235, October 1995.

Soderling, E.; Makinen, K.K.; Chen, C-Y; Pape, Jr., H.R.; Makinen, P-L: Effect of sorbitol, xylitol and xylitol/sorbitol chewing gums on dental plaque. Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 67, Special Issue, Abstract 1334, 1988.

Tufts University School of Dental Medicine: Dry Mouth, 1986.

JECFA, Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, Twenty-seventh Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Geneva, WHO Technical Report Series No. 696, 1983.

JECFA, Forty-sixth meeting, Summary and Conclusions, Geneva, Switzerland, February 6-15, 1996.

vrijdag 25 december 2009

De ontdekking van Xylitol

In september, 1890, scheidde een Duitse Professor in de Chemie Emil Herman Fischer en zijn assistent Rudolf Stahel, xylitol uit zaagsel. Het werd xylit genoemd het duitse woord voor xylitol. Later in 1902 kreeg Fischer voor een verscheidenheid aan chemie gerelateerde ontdekkingen de Chemie Nobel prijs. Bijna gelijktijdig werd xylitol ontdekt door de Franse chemicus M.G. Bertrand door het te scheidden uit tarwe en stro (1891). De ontdekking kan daarom worden toegekend aan twee groepen onderzoekers.

De opvolgende vijftig jaar kreeg xylitol weinig aandacht. Het werd door Dr. Oscar Touster in relatie gebracht met een specifieke aandoening, pentosuria. Hij toonde middeen 1950 aan dat xylitol door het lichaam wordt aangemaakt.

In de jaren 60 werd xylitol bekend als een mogelijke suikervervanger. In 1965 werden de eerste onderzoeken opgestart om de suikervervanger in te zetten ter voorkoming van caries. In 1970 werd de onderzoeksgroep groter meer onderzoekers sloten zich aan bij Kauko K. Mäkinen om onderzoek te doen naar de effecten van xylitol.

In 1975 komt er meer en meer onderzoeksmateriaal vrij die de ervaringen beschrijven van meerjarig onderzoek bij mensen en het gebruik van xylitol.

In 1980 vinden er op meerdere plaatsen in de wereld, zoals; Frankrijk, Hongarije, Finland, Canada en Rusland.

De FDA (food and drug administration, Amerika)heeft gebruik van xylitol goedgekeurd in 1963.
In 1971 werd het gebruik van xylitol aangescherpt bij het direct toevoegen in de bloedbaan.
In 1978 werd xylitol gebruik geadviseerd wanneer er per dag niet meer dan 53gram wordt ingenomen. Verdere onderzoek werd geadviseerd maar niet opgestart. Toename van het gebruik van xylitol was hiervan het gevolg. De gezondheidsautoriteiten van vele verschillende landen namen het negatieve nieuws over xylitol niet serieus.

In die zelfde tijd ging onderzoek naar toepassingen van xylitol in voornamelijk kauwgom grotere vormen aan. De FDA gaf haar goedkeuring af nadat bleek dat xylitol een betere veranger is voor sorbitol of fructosesuikers.

In 1986 kwam de FDA met het bericht dat xylitol veilig is voor het menselijk gebruik.
Niet veel later heeft de Finse regering xylitol kauwgom opgenomen in hun gevechtsrantsoenen en duizenden scholen zijn benaderd om xylitol kauwgom op te nemen in voorlichtingscampagnes betreffende caries in het kader van gezondheidsconcepten.

donderdag 19 november 2009

De overtuiging regeert!


1 op de 10 mensen krijgt tijdens zijn leven een inwendige ontsteking. Zweren aan de twaalfvingerige darm komen het meeste voor. Ze zijn bijna nooit fataal, maar slopen soms een mens. De oorzaak van dit soort ontstekingen was lange tijd een mysterie. Het zal wel stress zijn, ga wat minder hard werk werken, neem je rust. Altijd goed om te horen wanneer er lichamelijk iets mankeert, want je lichaam verliest toch een survivalstrategie hetgeen nu eenmaal energie kost.

Algemeen werd aangenomen dat maagzweren ontstonden door een teveel aan maagzuur dat de maagwand aantastte. Een teveel aan maagzuur zou een gevolg van stress, sterk gekruid eten of grote hoeveelheden alcohol kunnen zijn, zo dacht men. Of liever gezegd het denken over… was niet meer nodig, want men kent de oorzaak. De behandeling kwam neer op het verzachten van de pijn (medicijn) en een verhaal dat iets in je is dat wellicht stress opbouwt.
In de jaren tachtig deden twee medische onderzoekers Barry Marshall en Robin Warren de ontdekking dat maagzweren veroorzaakt werden door een bacterie (helicobacter pylori), twintig jaar (2004) later kregen ze de Nobelprijs voor de Fysiologie of Geneeskunde.

Derig jaar geleden was de medische wereld niet blij. Er werden geen feesten georganiseerd ter ere van Barry en Robin. Ondanks dat ze een paar honderd miljoen mensen een perspectief hebben gegeven voor een slopende mystieke ziekte.
Niemand geloofde hen. De eerste reden hiervoor was ten eerste dat het “gezonde verstand” in de weg zat. Maagzuur is sterk spul een pH van 1, soortgelijk aan zoutzuur, dat soms in maffia praktijken gebruikt wordt als een oplosser voor een lichaam dat spoorloos moet verdwijnen. Het is sterk genoeg om een punaise te doen oplossen. Het was belachelijk om te denken dat bacteriën in die omgeving konden overleven.
Ten tweede was Barry een eenendertig jarige internist in opleiding en nog niet eens gepromoveerd. Zoals we verwachten komen belangrijke ontdekkingen van dokters aan onderzoekuniversiteiten, of van professoren van wereld beroemde medische centra. Niet gepromoveerde internisten genezen geen ziektes waar tien % van de wereldbevolking aan lijdt was de redenering.
Barry en Robin kregen hun onderzoek niet gepubliceerd. Een presentatie tijdens een vakcongres, maakte niet meer los dan een lach van het wetenschappelijke publiek. “Je hebt niet eens de uitstraling van een onderzoeker, laat staan een gedegen onderzoek”, was een opmerking uit het publiek.

De sceptici hadden eén redelijk argument. Er was een correlatie gevonden’, geen onomstotelijk bewijs. Bijna alle maagzweerpatiënten leken H. Pylori te hebben. Maar soms was er een patiënt waarbij het niet gevonden werd.
Barry was overtuigd van zijn gelijk en ten einde raad. De enige manier om aan te tonen dat de bacterie de boosdoener is was door gezonde mensen de bacterie te laten innemen om zo een maagzweer te veroorzaken.
Twee jaar later op een morgen had hij het niet meer en sloeg zijn ontbijt over, vroeg een aantal collega’s om getuige en slikte hij miljoenen H.Pylori bacteriën. Binnen een paar dagen kreeg Barry las van pijn, misselijkheid en alle andere symptomen die behoren bij een aankomende maagzweer. Met behulp van een endoscoop werd geconstateerd dat zijn maagwand van eerst roze en gezond, veranderde in rood en ontstoken. Met het “tovermiddel” genas Barry zichzelf een antibioticakuur en aangevuld met bismut (niet giftig, magnetisch zwaarmetaal).
Na deze “demonstratie” was de strijd nog steeds niet gestreden. Hij kreeg wel een paar aanhangers, maar ook tegenstanders. De demonstratie gaf de belangrijke theoretische benadering een nieuwe impuls.

12 jaar later, stonden de volksgezondheidinstituten eindelijk achter het idee dat een antibioticakuur de beste behandeling was om maagzweren te genezen.

Dit onderzoek draagt bij aan het thema dat bacteriën, virussen, schimmels en gisten meer ziekten veroorzaken dan we denken. Bijvoorbeeld baarmoederhalskanker door papillomavirus type 16 en 18. Epstein Barr virus, kanker in de neusholte. Hepatitus B en C (leverkanker). Schimmels en gisten staan nu nog in een verdomhoekje maar de lijn doortrekkend is het niet meer dan logisch dat de wetenschap het serieus neemt.
Uit een doctoraal studie van Barbara Demulle van de Universiteit Gent blijkt de relatie gelegd te zijn tussen schimmels hun afvalstoffen en kanker.

Ik/wij leggen de relatie tussen lichaam en geest. Met als voorbeeld in dit voorbeeld dat de overtuiging regeert. Zolang we blijven vermoeden blijft er heel veel mogelijk.

zondag 8 november 2009

Schimmel en gist infecties gerelateerd aan suiker

Fungus Mold Yeast Infection
Yeast infection symptoms include depression, fatigue, headaches, irritability, muscle pain, skin rash, respiratory, urinary problems, vaginitis. Other symptoms include digestive disorder, hypoglycemia, hyperactivity, impotence, memory loss, learning difficulties, menstrual problems, premenstrual syndrome, short attention.

Common yeast infection or also know as Candidiasis is caused by the yeast Candida albicans and thrives in the colon. Mold and fungus are members of the plant kingdom and yeasts are subgroups of these organisms.

Candida is the thick white mucous, cottage cheese in appearance discharges from the vagina. Yeast infection can grow on the skin, mouth and inside our bodies. Yeast in some type are present in every adult, child, and in some animals. Yeast infection health problems affect people of all ages and both sexes.

Fungus is forever lurking to multiply in moist locations. When our resistance or immune system weakens, it can overgrow in our bodies. In some type, the roots can penetrate the lining where it resides, such as the intestine. When this mucous membrane lining is penetrated by rhizomes or the roots it becomes possible for partially digested food particles, toxins, and yeast product to pass into the bloodstream. Yeast infection results in weak immune system, degenerative conditions and sickness.

Article in Healthy and Natural Magazine called The Silent Spring Within, quotes. Center for Disease Control report stated that, the incidence of serious fungal infection in hospitals has nearly doubled since 1980. Yeast infections accounted for 78 percent of these infections.

Though the Center of Disease Control concludes that internal yeast is the cause of infection, they have not made the connection that the yeast may be systematically the result or misuse of birth control pills or antibiotics.

Common Fungus Mold Yeast Infection Symptoms
Depression, digestive disorders, fatigue, headaches, hypoglycemia, hyperactivity, irritability, impotence, memory loss, learning difficulties, menstrual problems, muscle pain, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), respiratory problems, short attention, skin rash problems, urinary disorders and vaginitis.

Some physicians experiences are showing other connections between yeast infection, parasites, and other disorders like Arthritis, Crohn's disease, Hypoglycemia, Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia gravis, Schizophrenia, Psoriasis, Grave's and Systemic lupus erythematosus.

Most physicians continue to treat vaginal yeast by using medication that only suppresses the symptoms instead of dealing with the real issue.

Yeast infections are fed by carbohydrates, sugars, yeast and fermented foods. Most people who have yeast infection do not realize they are feeding it daily. Do not eat cooked or fresh fruit with other food because it spoils and ferments in the stomach. Fresh fruit when eaten alone will not ferment. Carbohydrates will ferment if eaten with proteins.

Some molds or fungus produce toxins to protect their environment. The toxins or fungus, when inhaled are the significant cause and effect of many health conditions like common allergies, asthmatic reactions, coughing, depression, diarrhea, headaches, irritability, fatigue, memory loss, respiratory problems, sinusitis, sneezing, sore throat, weak immunity and wheezing.

Mayo Clinic has determined that fungus causes nearly every case of chronic sinusitis, the most common chronic disease in the nation. The symptoms of chronic sinusitis include: inflammation of the nose and sinus, stuffiness, nasal blockages, thick mucus and post-nasal drip. There is no known medical treatment but there are alternatives.

There are thousands of fungus which causes cold or flu symptoms but they all have the potential of causing other health effects. The toxins produced by some fungus are carcinogenic and suppress the immune system, lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, liver and kidney.

Avoid Certain Food During Fungus Mold Yeast Infections
During any mold or yeast infection you should avoid all food with sugar, sucrose, corn fructose, maltose, lactose, glycogen, glucose, mannitol, sorbitol, galactose, monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Also avoid honey, molasses, maple syrup, date sugar and turbinado sugar.

Packaged Processed Food. Canned, bottled and boxed food usually contain refined sugar product and other preservatives or ingredients.

Avoid bakery goods that contain yeast or mold like bread, pastries, biscuits and muffins made with bleached white flour. Eat food with organic whole-wheat flour or stoned ground corn meal.

Food that contain yeast and mold are all cheeses, alcoholic beverages like wine and beer that have been fermented. Other fermented beverages include cokes, cider and root beer. All types of yeast or mold used in processing are genetically altered with cloned and mutant types that cause additional health related problems.

Avoid condiments, sauces and vinegar-containing food like mustard, ketchup, food with monosodium glutamate, mayonnaise and salad dressings.

Avoid fungi and all types of food that contain mushrooms, morels and truffles.

Reduce tobacco, coffee and tea intake. Avoid processed meat and fish products, especially when antibiotics have been used in the animals. Today, 50 percent of the antibiotics in use are fed to livestock.

One important thing to always avoid when infected or any disease is avoid mold and yeast. Most all commercially used yeast has been genetically altered for years. Substitute with sourdough breads. Better yet, bake your own bread and use sourdough starter instead of yeast. This way, you will avoid the preservatives and hydrogenated oils used in commercial breads.

Effective Fungus Mold Yeast Therapy
Disease or other conditions like yeast infection are due to the deficiency in our bodies oxidation process that leads to an accumulation of toxins stored in the fat tissue. These toxins ordinarily are burned in normal metabolic functioning.

Most effective way to rid the colon of fungus mold or yeast infection and other toxic waste products is to irrigate the colon with ozone water and hydrogen peroxide. The ozone oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and circulated throughout. When our bodies have ample oxygen, it produces enough energy to optimize metabolism and eliminate toxic wastes in the tissues. Natural immunity is achieved when the immune system is not burdened with heavy toxic buildup. Oxy-Mega Colon Cleanser oxygen supplement will benefit the same as ozone to balance our bodies chemistry, eliminate waste, and restore proper tissue and organ function.

As dead bacteria and other poisons or toxins are released, some cleansing effect may be experienced while the toxins are being released through the skin, lungs, kidneys and bowels. After two weeks, some reactions to the cleansing effect could include skin eruptions, sinus or chest cold, boils, headaches, diarrhea or other ways our bodies use to loosen toxins. This effect is temporary and should not last for more than one week depending on your condition. This is commonly referred to as the Healing Crisis. Many will quit their attempt to get better and fall back into their old degenerative habits because of this.

Less expensive and more gentle treatment for yeast infection is the Oxy-Mega colon cleanser oxygen supplement. Combination of friendly bacteria and Oxy-Mega colon cleanser can benefit and restore the balance of bacteria and regain control over the bad bacteria and yeast. This combination, along with the correct plant derived liquid vitamin and mineral dietary supplement will also help to cleanse and restore balance.

Eating fresh organic vegetables and unprocessed food will hasten the elimination of debris from the intestines. You can eat them raw or partially cooked. Squash and bananas help promote the growth of the friendly bacteria in the colon. Friendly bacteria also produce lactic acid, which lowers the pH of the large intestine.

donderdag 29 oktober 2009

Kauko K. Mäkinen Professor (Michigan, USA en Turku, Finland)

Op onderzoek naar xylitol kwam ik Kauko Mäkinen op het spoor. Na onderstaande mail kreeg ik de 5 artikelen over de post. Hoe mooi dat de xylitol Professor dat doet.



Dear Mr. Sloot:

Thank you for your e-mail of October 20. Before answering your question on the safety of xylitol, let me first review concisely the global status of xylitol.

Xylitol is currently used world-wide in all industrial and virtually all developing countries in numerous products, such as confectioneries, medicines, and cosmetic products. The number of different items and brands approches one thousand.
In Finland, where the curent dental use of xylitol started, xylitol chewing gum is the most popular single confectionery item. The awarenes of xylitol in Finland among consumers approaches 100%. The Finnish government, the Finnish Dental Association, and numerous public bodies endorse and recommend xylitol for caries prevention in all age groups. Parents and grandparents buy xylitol products for their families. Public Health Centres recommend xylitol, as do practicing dentists. Kindergartens and public schools give xylitol as part of lunch programs. Other countries have followed the suit and xylitol has become immensely popular in several Asian nations. The US FDA has approved xylitol already in 1963 as a dietary sweetener. In 1986 the US FDA published its latest strong endorsement on the safety of xylitol: its safety can be compared with that of sorbitol, another sugar alcohol used for more than 100 years in foods, or with lactose, the sweetener present in mother's milk. Today, xylitol is being tested in various parts of the world in school programs, to prevent early childhood caries.

1. The safety of xylitol has been studied during the past 50 years intensively. Accordingly, in my answer to you question "Is there any research done around the topic?", I should list thousands of scientific studies in this area. Such studies have been carried out all over the world by leading medical professional and clinicians. Their conclusions have been published in publicly available reports under the auspices of WHO, US FDA, and numerous scientific organizations and public regulatory bodies in all industrialized countries. This also stands for the Netherlands. I collaborated with Dutch medical and dental authorities in this sense already in the 1970s.

2. Xylitol has been used, especially in German-speking countries for decades as a source of energy in infusion therapy. Detrimentally ill or seriously injured patients receive xylitol directly into their circulation. Xylitol has saved a large number of patients. The biochemical mechanisms of these effects are naturally well known.

3. Xylitol is being used world-wide as a sweetener in the diabetic diet. Xylitol does not require insulin. National diabetologists' associations in many countries endorse xylitol.

4. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry has recently issued its own xylitol endrorsements and recommendations.

5. The US Army and the Finnish Defence Forces have endorsead and recommended xylitol.

These are just scattered examples of the current situation. It is not possible in a regular e-mail to pinpoint all the achievements made. There are no side effects when normal subjects consume xylitol for dental purposes. Our current recommendations call for the use of 5 to 7 g of xylitol per day, used in chewable or suckable items in three to five episodes per day. Young children may use less. For dental purposes, there is no need to consume more. In my current own country, also infants receive xylitol (from pacifiers or by other means). The only "side effects" which are not medical or pathological, are related to the occurrence of transient diarrhea in subjects who accidentally consume overdoses of xylitol. This is a normal reponse of our body. The absorption of xylitol is slower than that of glucose. Larger overdoses may in unadapted subjects cause diarrhea that is comparable to that caused by the much more commonly used sorbitol. The latter causes this "osmotic diarrhea" more readily than xylitol. Lactose intolerance causes by far more meaningful problems. Juvenile diabetics use xylitol without any problems, however, when you stick to the recommended daily consumption levels.

Since this issue is very large, it is not possible to treat the topic adequately in an e-mail message. Therefore, I have taken the liberty of sending to you at this stage the following five articles (you will receive them next week):

- Dietary Prevention of Dental Caries by Xylitol - Clinical Effectiveness and Safety. J Appl Nutr 1992
- The Rocky Road of Xylitol to its Clinical Application. J Dent Res 2000.
- Xylitol for Caries Prevention. J Dent Hygiene 2002
- Proceedings of the 2nd International Xylitol Symposium, Beijing, 2006 (Here, you should read especially the last paper on the public endorsement issue. The article lists a large number of independent organizations that endorse xylitol).
- Xylitol-Associated remineralization of Caries Lesions. Oralprophylaxe 2009.

I'm naturally anxious to help you also in the future if you still have questions. You may wonder why some circles are uncertain. The reason is that to fully understand the mechanism of the effects of xylitol in caries limitation, and its safety, normally requires a rather good background in biochemistry, microbiology, and basic sciences in general. Most people are simply not aware of the latest developments.

Good luck!

Sincerely,

Kauko K. Mäkinen
Professor Emeritus (Biochemistry, Clinical Chemistry, Oral Biology), University of Michigan and University of Turku
Affiliate Professor, University of Washington

vrijdag 23 oktober 2009

Suikerarm dieet en ontgiften

Soms is het goed om een week te ontgiften. Ja het woord ontgiften. De eerste keer dat ik hoorde van iemand dat suiker gif is is al weer een tijdje geleden.

Het was tijdens een vergadering en de geleerde man tegenover me (hij was het genie van het bedrijf) was bijna ontzet toen ik in mijn koffie drie klontjes suiker deed. Hij was daarover zo fanatiek dat het overleg even werd stilgelegd. Zijn leidinggevende moest er in zijn geheel op terugkomen `wat was er afgesproken om te bespreken!`.

Suiker is de laatste 50 jaar enorm in opmars en ziekten gerelateerd aan schimmels en gisten ook. Een verband die meerdere wetenschappers leggen en Laurens Maas laat zien in zijn praktijk wanneer deze ontkoppeld wordt, schimmels en gisten verdwijnen uit je lichaam en daarmee de mee gepaard gaande chronische klachten.

In deze blog over xylitolsuiker zal veel informatie komen te staan over xylitol in relatie met het verminderen van suikerinname en de positieve effecten hiervan.

Mocht u nu al vragen hebben mail dan naar: xylitolsuiker^gmail.com